Nov 4 (Reuters) – Each of the 197 signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has its own concerns and interests, which can make finding consensus a huge challenge.
Here are some of the major players and negotiating blocs engaged in the UN climate conference (COP27) which begins on November 6 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
China, the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases, experienced its hottest summer on record this year. In a national climate adaptation plan, he said extreme weather was a growing threat.
Nevertheless, the country is increasing its use of coal in the face of energy security risks, and President Xi Jinping said in October that China would continue to support “clean and efficient use of coal”.
Geopolitics also eclipses climate issues. A diplomatic row over Taiwan led Beijing to call off bilateral climate talks with the United States.
Few expect China to offer any new pledges at COP27, with officials saying the two-week summit is expected to focus on securing climate finance for developing countries.
The world’s second largest emitter after China arrives at COP27 after the approval of national legislation that is expected to unlock trillions of dollars in investment in clean energy and transport.
Provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), signed by President Joe Biden in August, are expected to triple the amount of clean energy on the power grid and cut carbon emissions by a billion tons per year. year by the end of this decade.
But with US congressional elections on November 8, the second day of COP27, environmental activists fear a move to Republican control of Congress could undermine the IRA’s implementation.
The United States is also set to ratify the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, which will phase out the use of hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs – a climate pollutant used in refrigeration. He also plans to announce methane rules for the oil and gas sector that would extend to last year’s U.S. proposals.
The greenhouse gas emissions of the 27 countries of the European Union represent approximately 8% of the world total and have been on a downward trend for years.
The bloc has enshrined in law targets to cut net emissions by at least 55% by 2030 from 1990 levels, and to reduce them to zero by 2050, but is still negotiating a policy to implement achieve these goals. The EU has said it will update its climate target, but only after new climate laws are approved – which won’t be until next year.
Negotiating as a single group at the UN climate talks, the EU intends to push other major emitters to raise their targets. It is also expected to face pressure at COP27 to ease its longstanding resistance to compensation for loss and damage.
Last year’s conference host faced months of political unrest and an energy crisis that could undermine the country’s climate goals. In 2019, Britain pledged to achieve net zero emissions by 2050, and last year pledged a 78% reduction by 2035 from 1990 levels.
But in October he announced a new round of oil and gas licenses in the North Sea, insisting he would not interfere with his climate ambitions. It is unclear how Conservative Prime Minister Rishi Sunak will pursue his energy policy. Meanwhile, longtime climate champion King Charles III has said he will skip the COP27 conference in Egypt.
Brazil, South Africa, India and China make up this block of populous and rapidly developing countries with highly polluting economies.
Each called on rich countries for more climate finance and demanded equity through the UNFCCC’s concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” – meaning that the rich countries that have historically contributed the most to emissions in the atmosphere have a greater responsibility to solve the problem.
India has resisted quitting coal, maneuvering with China at COP26 last year to block stronger commitments to quit.
Brazil is expected to spearhead negotiations detailing rules for carbon credit markets as it seeks to monetize its vast forests.
South Africa is rushing to strike a side deal with the EU, US and others to provide it with $8.5 billion to switch from fossil fuels to renewables.
OTHER TRADING BLOCKS:
G77 + CHINA
This alliance of 77 developing countries and China maintains the line on the concept that different countries have different responsibilities. At COP27, Pakistan, which suffered catastrophic flooding this year, will lead the group whose members are united in demanding a dedicated fund to compensate rich countries.
This alliance of non-EU developed countries includes Australia, Japan, Russia and the United States.
African members of the UN will push for additional climate finance, while arguing that growing economies need fossil fuels to boost power capacity. Many African countries, including host country Egypt, want to develop their natural gas reserves as a transitional fuel and as a way to capitalize on European demand for gas to replace Russian imports.
CLIMATE VULNERABLE FORUM
Representing 58 countries most exposed to climate impacts, including Bangladesh and the Maldives, this group is heading towards COP27 with a fundamental demand: a dedicated fund through which rich polluting countries help the most vulnerable to bear the costs of “losses and losses”. damage “. The forum also wants all countries to step up their climate goals.
ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES
The alliance, known by its acronym AOSIS, represents countries disproportionately vulnerable to climate impacts, particularly sea level rise and coastal erosion.
INDEPENDENT ALLIANCE OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
The AILAC bloc is aligned with other developing countries to demand greater climate ambition and more funding from wealthier countries.
GROUP OF LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
This includes 46 nations that are vulnerable to climate change although they contribute little to it. In addition to demanding that loss and damage be addressed, LDCs want rich countries to provide double the funding for adaptation and greater access to it.
FEEDING THE PAST COAL ALLIANCE
Led by Britain and Canada, 41 countries and dozens of other local governments and businesses have pledged to accelerate clean energy transitions. The group this year criticized plans to burn more coal in response to the energy crisis triggered by war in Ukraine.
HIGH AMBITION COALITION
Chaired by the Marshall Islands and counting among its members Costa Rica, the United States and the EU, this group advocates for more progressive emissions targets and climate policies.
Reporting by David Stanway, Valerie Volcovici, Kate Abnett, Gloria Dickie, Shadia Nasralla, Jake Spring and Aidan Lewis; Editing by Katy Daigle and Barbara Lewis
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