African Reserves

Letters: Tell us about sanctions

AS I would like to support those calling for the removal of the so-called illegal sanctions, can someone from Zanu PF or the government please educate some of us on the impact of these sanctions so that we understand how do they affect ordinary citizens? citizens.

Some of us believe that Zimbabwe is not subject to sanctions that deserve international attention.

The ordinary Zanu PF supporter on the streets of Harare fails to explain the implications of these sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe by the United States of America and the European Union.

I have read articles on targeted sanctions which prohibit certain targeted entities and individuals linked to Zanu PF from doing business with certain Western companies or governments and which include travel restrictions for President Emmerson Mnangagwa and certain Zanu PF linked to human rights abuses in Zimbabwe.

I do not see these travel bans affecting the mobilization of food aid from international NGOs and governments.

The travel bans and targeted restrictions were a direct response to the lamentations of Zimbabwean citizens over the misuse of public funds and gross human rights abuses.

The unjustified arrests, disappearances and detentions of human rights defenders make us believe that it is necessary to take punitive measures against the alleged perpetrators or artisans of these abuses.

The so-called re-engagement crusade led by Foreign Secretary Frederick Shava is a wild goose chase as long as the red flag is still raised on the wrongful incarceration of CCC MPs Job Sikhala, Godfrey Sithole and the Nyatsime 13.

My advice is that the new dispensation should end state-sponsored violence like the Matobo skirmishes that left opposition lawmaker Jasmine Toffa brutalized and hospitalized.

The refusal to accredit independent journalists to cover a Zanu PF event is a serious violation of media freedom.

The attack on VOA journalist Godwin Mangudya in Kuwadzana while covering a Zanu PF event is another good example of an unrepentant political party in power.

Zanu PF must first repent before embarking on unsuccessful re-engagement runs.

Camping at the US Embassy without sanitary facilities will never help lift targeted restrictions even if we have to sing and dance the night away to all kinds of music.

Stop corruption, human rights violations, abuse of power and account for missing activists if the re-engagement effort is to bear fruit. -Kurauone Chihwayi

Punish Zimsec officials who leak exams

LEAKAGE from Ordinary Level examinations has become common practice in schools affiliated with the Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (Zimsec).

As a citizen and parent, it is heartbreaking to see how invested the authorities are in punishing rather than getting to the root of the problem. Zimsec’s decision to punish exam cheaters is so serious that it does not solve the problem.

This culture has been recurring for years, and certainly the students are not to blame, but the Zimsec system is.

Learners are the recipients and probably don’t know where these desks are, so why stop them? It is certainly embarrassing and a threat to the reputation of our education system.

The increased penalties for students who received or sold exam papers will not change the fact that Zimsec should be liable for exam leaks.

Thorough investigations must be carried out and it is high time that punitive measures are put in place for all those involved. And it’s time for Zimsec to pay markers as well, because it will reduce any reason to solicit funds or engage in corrupt activities.

Zimsec must stop using our children as scapegoats for its failures. – Anonymous parent

Africa rich in minerals

AFRICA’s mining industry is the largest in the world. Africa is the second largest continent with 30 million square kilometers of land, which involves large amounts of mineral resources.

For many African countries, mineral exploration and production are important parts of their economies and remain essential to economic growth.

Africa is richly endowed with mineral reserves and ranks first or second in the world’s reserves of bauxite, cobalt, industrial diamond, phosphate rock, platinum group metals, vermiculite and zirconium.

Africa has the richest concentration of minerals and gemstones in the world, with gold being the main mineral of the continent.

In South Africa, the Bushveld Complex, one of the largest masses of igneous rock on earth, contains important deposits of strategic metals such as platinum, chromium and vanadium, metals essential for the manufacture of tools and high-tech industrial processes.

The Bushveld complex is about two billion years old.

Another spectacular intrusion of igneous rocks composed of olivine, augite and hypersthene occurred in the Archean eon more than 2.5 billion years ago in Zimbabwe.

Called the Great Dyke, it contains significant deposits of chromium, asbestos and nickel.

Almost all of the world’s chromium reserves are in Africa.

Chromium is used to harden alloys, to produce stainless steel, as an industrial catalyst and to provide corrosion resistance.

Single eruptions that occurred during the Cretaceous in southern and central Africa formed kimberlite vents – near-cylindrical vertical rock bodies caused by deep melting in the upper mantle.

Kimberlite pipes are the main source of gemstones and industrial diamonds in Africa.

Africa contains 40% of the world’s diamond reserves, which are found in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

In South Africa, uranium mixes with gold, thus reducing production costs. Uranium deposits are also found in Niger, Gabon, DRC and Namibia.

South Africa alone contains half of the world’s gold reserves.

Gold deposits are also common in Zimbabwe, DRC and Ghana.

Alluvial gold (eroded from soils and rock strata by rivers) is found in Burundi, Ivory Coast and Gabon.

As for other minerals, half of the world’s cobalt is found in the DRC, and Congolese geological formations containing cobalt extend as far as Zimbabwe.-Enock

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